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Ecology Vol.27, No.3, p.248-268, 2008
|Title: EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON KEY TREE SPECIES OF THE CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS|
|Author: BLANKA MANKOVSKA, JULIUS OSZLANYI, PETER BARANCOK|
|Abstract: Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 26 sites
of the Carpathian Mts forests are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different higher from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with
Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts showed that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa (UA); in fir needles from Stoliky (SK), and in beech leaves
from Malá Fatra (SK). Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental
stress in Carpathian Mts forests. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni, and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species.
|Keywords: spruce, beech, fir, atmospheric deposition, nutrition elements, heavy metals, epicuticular waxes|
|Year: 2008, Volume: 27, Issue: 3||Page From: 248, Page To: 268|