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Slovenská hudba, Vol. 37, No 1, p.5-29

Title: Príspevok k dejinám elektroakustickej hudby na Slovensku
Author: Alena Čierna

Abstract: Influenced by historical and social factors and both European and domestic development of music the electroacoustic music (EAM) in Slovakia started to grow during the early 1960s. At the beginning it was related to experimental endeavours of the younger composers’ generation represented by Ilja Zeljenka, Roman Berger, Ladislav Kupkovič, Peter Kolman, Jozef Malovec, Ivan Parík and others, without the ambitions to become part of recovering avant-garde efforts. As an “experiment” it was at first only “tolerated” (later also persecuted) and pushed to the edge of the official music culture. In the time when in Paris, Köln, Tokyo and Warsaw people worked in technically well equipped electroacoustic studios, in Slovakia we encountered the first primitive experiments with audio technique mainly on the private basis.
The first impetus for the transformation from a passing intoxication by sound to an avant-garde artistic creation offered  film production and the establishment of the Audio Department of the Czechoslovak Television (1961). In 1964 the second experimental department was formed in Slovakia – Special Effects of the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava, which had at its disposal an accessible technical equipment of the period from the manufacture of the Developing Department of the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava. The interest aroused among literary as well as music departments of the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava has led to a gradual enlargement of the department and to the improvement of the technical equipment of the studio. In May 1965 music composer Peter Kolman was nominated the programme director of the studio (the executive staff was formed by sound engineers Ing. Peter Janík and Ján Backstuber) and in June the department was officially proclaimed the electroacoustic studio – Experimental Studio of the Czechoslovak Radio (EXS).
Since its beginnings a universal character of the EXS activities has been profiled: the production of original electroacoustic compositions; the production of concrete sounds, audio effects and jingles for radio dramas; arrangement of spoken words; electroacoustic incidental music to radio dramas. In the development of the EXS (later Electroacoustic Studio, 1977–1990) we may observe several stages resulting from the restructuralization of its technological basis: the gradual change to stereo (1968/1969), gradual digitalization of all production stages – from recording, arrangements, cutting to a final mix and reproduction (second half of the 1980s).
In spite of a sound technological basis after 1997 the space for the creation of EAM was becoming more and more limited. On the one hand it was caused by the existing economic situation and a system of financing, on the other hand it occurred due to the mass spreading of computer technologies. In the period 2001 to 2003 the EXS went through the final principal rebuilding of its technological basis, however, neither the reinforcement of its statutory position (2002) has shielded the EXS from the intervention into its independency and exclusivity of its position in the organizational structure of the Slovak Radio. Since August 1, 2006 the EXS has been included into the Centre for Sound Creation and the term Experimental Studio has disappeared from the organizational structure of the SR. It has resulted in the gradual reduction of the production of original electroacoustic compositions. Despite the relocation of the creative human capacity in the present-day Radio and Television of Slovakia the activity of the EXS has not ceased. Presently due to the collaboration with the Film and Television Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts (the contract from 2011) the accent of its creation has shifted to the cooperation in the artistic creation, to the realm of scientific and research activities (revitalization of music mono recordings and sound tracks of older movies) and to the field of education. The activity of EXS is thus again joined with the film production similarly to the beginnings of the electroacoustic music genre in Slovakia.

Year: 2011, Volume: 37, Issue: 1 Page From: 5, Page To: 29

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