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Slovenská hudba, Vol. 37, No 1, p.30-47

Title: Východiská vzniku stereofónie vo svete a na Slovensku
Author: Pavol Brezina

Abstract: The Conditions for the Origin of Stereo Sound System in the World and in Slovakia
Stereophonic sound recording has gone through a number of changes either in the realm of its technical realization or in music-sound perception. The first attempts in technical realization and demonstration of a two-channel sound recording were carried out by Clément Ader in 1881 at The International Exhibition and Congress of Electricity in Paris. Almost 50 years had to pass before the successful recording and reproduction of stereophonic sound was realized. Two significant scientists claim the merit for it – Arthur Keller from Bell Laboratories in 1932 and Alan Blumlein from Columbia Graphophone Company in 1933. Remarkably, they both accomplished the invention approximately at the same time independently from each other. The stereophonic sound recording demanded not only the technical realization but also a new plan for placement of the microphones, what encouraged the invention of new microphone techniques; in the Bell Labs they dealt with the special placement of microphones (AB technique) while Alan Blumlein worked with coincidence microphone technology (Blumlein’s stereo pair, XY technique). By the way of modification of these two approaches to the microphone placement other techniques of stereophonic sound recording developed later (M/S, Decca tree, O.R.T.F., N.O.S. etc.).
In Slovakia the origins of stereo sound system are joined with the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava and its department – Experimental Studio. The Experimental Studio realized the first attempt in the creation of the stereo sound recording at the end of 1966, when its sound engineer Peter Janík produced a stereo version of an autonomous electroacoustic composition Orthogenesis by Jozef Malovec. As this piece had been created and recorded in mono format, the original sound recording had to be reworked. Other departments of the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava dealt with the idea to make a stereo recording. On the basis of a research in the phonoarchive of the Slovak Radio in Bratislava the first stereo recording realized by the Department of Classical Music in 1967 has been found (the piece for a mixed choir Čože ma je po ňom...). Vladimír Marko co-operated in the technical realization. The Department for Entertaining Music accomplished the first stereo recording in 1968 (Pavol Zelenay), the piece titled Starý známy performed by Dance Orchestra of the Czechoslovak Radio in Bratislava, again Vladimír Marko co-operated technically.

Year: 2011, Volume: 37, Issue: 1 Page From: 30, Page To: 47

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