Home Slovenská hudba 2013 Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, No 4, p.394-412

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Slovenská hudba, Vol. 39, No 4, p.394-412

Title: Digitálne edície a hypermediálne archívy hudby a ich využitie na Slovensku
Author: Vladimír Král


Digital Editions and Hypermedia Music Archives

The rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the recent 20 years has been manifested also in the realm of musicology. The influence of new ICT is displayed especially in the usage of notation softwares, enabling a swift publication of music materials in digital formats such as PDF (Portable Document Format) or XML (Extensible Markup Language). The modern ICT enabled also the origination of online databases of music-historical sources, the launch of various digitization initiatives, or the development of softwares for optic recognition and musical analysis. The next logical step should be the preparation of digital editions of music-historical sources.
The first part of the study deals with the digital editions in the field of literary science. First we discuss three important technologies with the greatest influence on the transition from printed editions to the digital editions. The first technology is markup language. The purpose of the technology is to enrich the text with additional data – mostly concerning the significance, structure, or the way of depiction of particular sections of the text in digital environment. The next technology is the mass digitization starting in the early 1990s. The last technology is the hypertext enabling the non-linear arrangement of the text, whose particular parts are mutually joined by hyperlinks.
The following part of the contribution deals with the issue of the book format and the restrictions connected to the preparation of the editions in such format and the possibilities of their solution. The starting point of our reflection is the study The Rationale of Hypertext by Jerome McGann. For McGann the solution is the hyperedition, resulting in a critical fully interconnected hypermedia archive. The hypermedia archive consists of virtual copies of accumulated sources mutually interconnected by hypertext links, annotations with critical and contextual data and analytical tools enabling the search and comparison in the processed material.
Closing the first section of the study we present some examples of the hypermedia archives in the realm of literary science (The Walt Whitman Archive, The Shakespeare Quartos Archive, The Canterbury Tales Project and Rossetti Archive).
The second section of the study is focused on the proposal of the concept of digital edition and hypermedia archive of music. In its introduction we deal with the problems of traditional music editions and music editorship, the solution to which may be provided exactly by creation of digital editions and hypermedia music archives.
The following part of the study concentrates on the music projects which are in themselves the first trials in the creation of such editions (Computerized Mensural Music Edition, The Caron Web Site, Digital Mozart Ausgabe, Online Chopin Variorum Edition, Bratislava Antiphonaries I – V). We present the definition of the terms digital edition and hypermedia archive.
The next part presents the proposal of hypermedia music archive. In this section we suggest the particular model of the hypermedia archive with everything it should include. We base it on the abovementioned study by Jerome McGann and the requirements of musicology on the critical editions preparation. Following that, we attempt to propose a systematic division of various kinds of hypermedia archives and digital music editions.
Closing the study we present some advantages and disadvantages brought by this concept of processing the music-historical sources and we conclude that despite certain disputable points (copyrights, fundings, etc.) the way of processing the music-historical sources as hypermedia archives and digital editions appears presently as the most effective, most current model answering the time and context.

Year: 2014, Volume: 39, Issue: 4 Page From: 394, Page To: 412

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