Home Acta Virologica 2015 Acta Virologica Vol.59, No.4, p.338-349, 2015

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Founded: 1957
ISSN 0001-723X
E-ISSN 1336-2305

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Acta Virologica Vol.59, No.4, p.338-349, 2015

Title: Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain
Author: I. MORI

Abstract: Viral neuroinvasion via the olfactory system has been investigated in a variety of virus-animal models by scientists in many fields including virologists, pathologists, and neurologists. In humans, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Borna disease virus, rabies virus, and influenza A virus have been shown to take the olfactory route for neuroinvasion based on forensic and post-mortem specimens. This article briefly summarizes the anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the olfactory system and presents a battery of neurovirulent viruses that may threaten the human brain by invading through this peripheral pathway, especially focusing on two of the most intensively studied viruses – HSV-1 and influenza A virus. Viruses may insidiously invade the olfactory neural network not only to precipitate encephalitis/encephalopathy but also to promote the development of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Substantial information obtained by analyzing human specimens is required to argue for or against this hypothesis.

Keywords: virus; olfactory neuron; human brain; encephalitis; neurodegenerative disorders
Published online: 06-Dec-2015
Year: 2015, Volume: 59, Issue: 4 Page From: 338, Page To: 349
doi:10.4149/av_2015_04_338


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