Home CONTACT Neoplasma 2017 Neoplasma Vol.64, No.3, p.395-405, 2017

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Neoplasma Vol.64, No.3, p.395-405, 2017

Title: Activation of the cell membrane angiotensin AT2 receptors in human leiomyosarcoma cells induces differentiation and apoptosis by a PPARγ – dependent mechanism
Author: U. LÜtzen, Y. Zhao, K. Lucht, M. Zuhayra, J. Hedderich, I. Cascorbi, J. Culman

Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), acting on AT1 and AT2 receptors participates in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in tumour cells. The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its ligands exert anti-tumour effects in various human cancer cell lines. The present study investigates the effects initiated by AT1- and AT2 receptor stimulation in SK-UT-1 cells, a human leiomyosarcoma cell line, and clarifies the role of the PPARγ in the AT2 receptor-induced differentiation and apoptosis.
Selective stimulation of AT1- and AT2 receptors was achieved by incubation of the cells with Ang II (10-6 M) in the presence of the selective AT2 receptor antagonist, PD 123177 (10-6 M) and the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan (10-5 M), respectively, the selective PPARγ antagonist, GW 9662, was used at concentration 10-6 M. The expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation markers, SM22α and calponin, was analysed at RNA- and protein levels using RT PCR and Western blot, which was also used to quantify Bcl-2-, Bax- and cleaved caspase-3 proteins. The translocation of the AT2-receptor interacting protein 1 (ATIP1) to the nuclei was studied by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The mitochondrial status and the metabolic activity in response to AT1- and AT2 receptor activation were assessed by the quantification of 99mTc – sestamibi and 2´-deoxy-2´-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose uptake.
AT1 receptor stimulation did not exert any profound effects in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells. The effects induced by Ang II acting on AT2 receptors were time-dependent. A short, 3 – 6 h lasting stimulation promotes differentiation, i.e increases in the mRNA- and protein levels of SM22α and calponin, whereas a sustained stimulation for 48 h activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by reduced cell numbers, down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and increased levels of the Bax protein and cleaved caspase-3. The effects were reversed by the PPARγ antagonist, GW 9662, clearly implying a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. Our results also demonstrate a co-localisation of the AT2-receptor interacting protein, ATIP1, and the PPARγ in nuclei of SK-UT-1 cells and an accumulation of ATIP1 in the nuclear fraction in response to AT2 receptor stimulation. The regulation of the differentiation and apoptosis via the AT2 receptor favours an important functional role of this receptor in quiescent, slow-cycling SK-UT-1 cells and provides the rationale for the use of AT1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of human leiomyosarcomas.

Keywords: Angiotensin AT2 receptor, uterine leiomysarcoma, differentiation, apoptosis, PPARγ, ATIP1
Published online: 12-May-2017
Year: 2017, Volume: 64, Issue: 3 Page From: 395, Page To: 405

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