Home CUSTOMERS Neoplasma 2018 Neoplasma Vol.65, No.4, p.477-493, 2018

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Founded: 1954
ISSN 0028-2685
ISSN 1338-4317 (online)

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Neoplasma Vol.65, No.4, p.477-493, 2018

Title: Epigenetics: an alternative pathway in GISTs tumorigenesis

Abstract: Many diseases have different pathological backgrounds responsible for abnormal cell behavior and exhibiting altered function and signal transduction. This is especially true for tumors and although changes affecting DNA sequence, irreversible mutations and chromosomal aberrations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have been widely studied, the importance of reversible epigenetic changes increasingly recognized in many cancers has received insufficient attention in these tumors. Epigenetic mechanisms are part of normal development and gene expression under normal conditions, but malfunction of these processes leads to malignant transformation by disturbing both intra- and intercellular communication. GISTs are a specific group of gastrointestinal tract tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although they account for only 1% to 2% of tumors, they are among the most widespread gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. DNA hyper/hypomethylation overexpression/underexpression of miRNAs or abnormal histone modification may provide an alternative to the genetic modifications responsible for GIST pathology, response to treatment, prognosis and overall survival. This review summarizes the known epigenetic mechanisms involved in GIST pathogenesis; including onset, progression, and GISTs resistance. Reversible epigenetic changes are a novel and appropriate approach to halt the spread of metastases and the emergence of resistance in GIST treatment, and these changes depend on the type of epigenetic alternation, including inhibitors of histone acetyltranferase and deacetylase and DNA methyltransferases.

Keywords: epigenetics, GISTs, methylation, histone modification, miRNAs
Published online: 30-Jul-2018
Year: 2018, Volume: 65, Issue: 4 Page From: 477, Page To: 493

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